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Table 1 Patient characteristics and univariate associations with hematoma expansion

From: Swirls and spots: relationship between qualitative and quantitative hematoma heterogeneity, hematoma expansion, and the spot sign

Variable All patients Hematoma expansion* No hematoma expansion p-value**
(n = 71) (n = 21) (n = 50)
Clinical Variables
 Age, years (mean ± SD) 68.2 ± 15.6 71.1 ± 14.0 66.9 ± 16.2 0.295
 Gender, male (%) 46 (65) 13 (62) 33 (66) 0.742
 Hypertension (%) 57 (80) 16 (76) 41 (82) 0.574
 Anticoagulation (%) 9 (13) 2 (10) 7 (14) 0.605
 Time to Baseline CT, hours 1.9 (1.3–4.6) 1.4 (1.2–1.9) 2.1 (1.4–6.4) 0.361
  <3 h n (%) 49 (69) 18 (86) 31 (62) 0.059
 NIHSS 10 (6–16) 11 (8–15) 10 (5–16) 0.751
 MABP, mmHg 146 (130–172) 150 (137–172) 144 (129–169) 0.773
Laboratory Values
 Hemoglobin, g/L 142 (131–150) 142 (117–150) 142 (135–149) 0.317
 Platelets, x109/L 228 (180–286) 239 (181–297) 227 (175–268) 0.173
 WBC, x109/L 8.1 (6.8–10.8) 7.5 (6.7–9.1) 8.6 (6.8–10.9) 0.257
 INR 1.03 (0.99–1.12) 1.06 (0.99–1.20) 1.02 (0.99–1.11) 0.243
 INR >1.5 (%) 6 (8) 4 (19) 2 (4) 0.057
 PTT (sec) 31 (28–34) 32 (28–36) 30 (28–33) 0.455
 Glucose (mmol/L) 7.1 (6.0–8.3) 7.0 (6.1–7.8) 7.1 (6.0–8.4) 0.529
Radiological Characteristics
NCCT characteristics    
 Baseline Hematoma Volume (cm3) 18.1 (5.3–37.6) 8.0 (4.3–42.9) 18.5 (6.2–36.3) 0.633
 ICH Location     0.211
 Deep (%) 36 (51) 13 (62) 23 (46) --
 Lobar (%) 29 (41) 7 (33) 22 (44) --
 Infratentorial (%) 6 (8) 1 (5) 5 (10) --
 IVH presence (%) 36 (51) 10 (48) 26 (52) 0.736
 Swirl Sign (%) 33 (46) 14 (67) 19 (38) 0.031
 Heterogeneous Hematoma (%) 35 (49) 14 (67) 21 (42) 0.062
Quantitative NCCT Densitometry Values    
 Mean HU (mean ± SD) 55.1 ± 3.9 53.7 ± 3.7 55.7 ± 3.9 0.052
 SD (mean ± SD) 10.1 ± 1.5 9.4 ± 1.7 10.4 ± 1.4 0.029
 CV (mean ± SD) 0.182 ± 0.021 0.174 ± 0.024 0.185 ± 0.019 0.059
 Skewness (mean ± SD) −0.23 ± 0.26 −0.18 ± 0.18 −0.24 ± 0.29 0.383
 Kurtosis (mean ± SD) 2.31 ± 0.37 2.30 ± 0.24 2.31 ± 0.41 0.952
CTA variables    
 CTA spot sign presence (%) 26 (37) 12 (57) 14 (28) 0.023
 CTA spot sign number 0 (0–1) 1 (0–3) 0 (0–1) 0.009
  1. All values represent median (IQR) or n (%) unless specified
  2. *Hematoma expansion defined as >6 mL or >33 %
  3. **p-value calculated from bivariate logistic regression
  4. Bold font indicates statistical significance